Assisted reproductive technologies… Choosing the most appropriate technique depends on the reason for not having children

Assisted reproductive technologies… Choosing the most appropriate technique depends on the reason for not having children

Assisted reproductive technologies
Assisted reproductive technologies

ICSI and IVF are among the most famous techniques to assist pregnancy and it is like a revolution in the treatment of many infertility problems in women as well as men such as blockage of the fallopian tubes, endometriosis, disruption of the ovulation process, early ovarian failure, uterine fibroids in women, and the small number of animals Sperm motility or poor motility in men.

In recent years, this field has witnessed remarkable developments, and many methods have emerged as needed, that is, after determining the reason for not having children.

Before determining the type of technology that is most suitable for the couple, the beginning is always with medical examinations and a comprehensive assessment of the couple’s infertility status, in addition to routine and special laboratory tests such as hormone testing, ovulation inventory and semen examination.

The woman must undergo one of the ovulation stimulation protocols according to what the doctor deems appropriate, taking into account the woman’s age, ovaries condition, and hormones, provided that this stage lasts between one to two weeks, after which the eggs are matured for withdrawal, under the influence of general anesthesia, and then injected under the microscope. with sperms selected for this purpose.

ICSI (Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection) technology is the process of injecting sperm directly into the egg to assist its fertilization. This technique is one of the types of artificial fertilization and IVF. In the ICSI process, a single sperm is used to fertilize a single egg.

This technique is used in the event that fertilization has not occurred in previous cases of IVF, or in the event of low, weak or inactive sperm count, and it can also be performed if a woman has produced a small number of eggs.

IUI technique i.e. intrauterine insemination; In this technique, women are given a stimulant (Clomid) for five days to increase the number of eggs. At the time of ovulation, sperms are taken from the man for washing and choosing the best ones to be implanted into the uterus through a catheter in the clinic.

This method is the closest to a natural pregnancy because the completion of the pregnancy occurs inside the uterus, and the desired result of this technique is that the sperm swim in the fallopian tube and fertilize the waiting egg, which leads to pregnancy. Depending on the cause of infertility, IUI may be coordinated with a natural ovulatory cycle or fertility drugs.

This technique is useful in cases where the man suffers from weak, low or inactive sperm.

The technique of microscopic insemination, we intensify the ovulation and pull it out, as well as for the sperm, then we fertilize each sperm inside an egg called sperm injection; We keep them in the tube or incubator for a few days before we re-implant them into the uterus.

*** Microinjection steps

In the beginning, the cause of infertility must be determined and an attempt should be made to treat it using the available methods. In case of failure, the doctor will then move to IVF operations, which requires first conducting accurate examinations.

After doing some blood tests for the couple, the doctor examines the uterus and fallopian tubes and examines the sperm, and the success of the operations requires that both spouses be able to produce an egg as well as produce sperm, even if a small number.

The beginning is by giving the woman hormonal drugs, whether by injection or pills, in order to produce the largest possible number of eggs to increase the possibility of forming a larger number of fertilized embryos, with the aim of increasing the success rate. The response to treatment is followed up by means of a vaginal sonar device to determine the number and size of eggs and whether they are suitable for fertilization. When the eggs reach the size of maturity, they are withdrawn under anesthesia and collected with the help of the vaginal sonar device, provided that the patient is usually prepared an hour before giving her an anesthetic and analgesic substance, then the vagina is cleaned with a sterile substance, after which the device enters the vagina and the process of withdrawing the eggs is done gradually from one of the ovaries.

The husband’s sperms are collected in a sufficient number and of good quality. The semen sample is subjected to preparation by separating the motile sperm from the prostate secretion fluid and other accompanying fluids. In the laboratory dedicated to IVF, the sperm is placed with the egg in a special incubator for fertilization to take place, and the doctor continuously monitors the fertilization process and the stages of fetal development.

 The embryos are transferred about five days after the date of egg retrieval to the mother’s womb, and here lies the accuracy of the process to ensure its success, as the doctor must take into account the temperature difference between the incubator and the outside and the speed of transfer that does not exceed seconds, and the faster the transfer, the greater the chance of success.

The advanced medical devices that are spreading contribute to keeping the temperature constant during the process of transferring the fetus from the incubator and placing it in the mother's womb. There are modern and innovative scientific methods that also help in mobilizing the fetus inside the catheter.

After two weeks from the date of embryo transfer without a menstrual period, the woman must visit the doctor to conduct a hormonal blood test to confirm pregnancy. The pregnancy can be seen three weeks after the embryo transfer through the sonar device.

To ensure the continuation of the pregnancy, the mother is given medications to stabilize the pregnancy, which are compensation hormones and special supplements that ensure the presence of the hormone responsible for the growth of the fetus's cells, and then the placenta appears, which begins to nourish the fetus.

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