What is the role of insulin in diabetes?

What is the role of insulin in diabetes?

What is the role of insulin in diabetes?
What is the role of insulin in diabetes?


*** The role of insulin in diabetes

Insulin is the hormone that helps the body's cells make use of the sugar in the bloodstream, and the cells in the human body can't process sugar from carbohydrates directly.

Therefore, after each meal the level of sugar/glucose in the blood rises, the pancreas is signaled to release insulin into the bloodstream, so that the blood sugar level can be controlled and the cells use the excess sugar, and in the case of diabetes insulin injections are the alternative to the secretion of the pancreas.

Blood glucose and insulin reach each cell where it is converted into energy, insulin binds to glycoprotein receptors on the cell surface.

This receptor consists of a protein kinase that is activated and helps cells absorb glucose from the bloodstream. This glucose can be converted instantly into energy or cells can store glucose for later use. Insulin remains in the blood and is filtered out in the urine.


*** How does insulin help store and break down fats?

Besides enabling cells to absorb glucose, insulin aids in the body's metabolism, it is the hormone responsible for the cell's decision to store glucose as fat or use it, to control the level of glucose in the blood, insulin sends signals to the liver and fat cells to absorb glucose from the blood.

The liver can store 5 percent of glucose in the form of glycogen, if there is excess sugar in the blood, then insulin stimulates fat cells to store this glucose in the form of triglycerides, and it also prevents the breakdown of fats.


Insulin therapy

In normal adults without diabetes, insulin helps regulate blood sugar levels and convert excess glucose into energy. In type 1 diabetes, the body cannot produce insulin, and similarly in type 2 diabetes, the insulin it produces is not enough. The body can or cannot use it efficiently to convert glucose into energy, to compensate for this deficiency insulin therapy is beneficial, this treatment includes injections of recombinant synthetic insulin.

In patients with type 1 diabetes, the injection of exogenous insulin will replace the lack of insulin production in the pancreas.

And in type 2 or gestational diabetes, insulin therapy helps when other treatments and diets fail to use the insulin secreted efficiently.


Types of insulin

Insulin is of different types depending on the duration of its action:


Long-acting and long-acting insulins are usually used to control glucose levels before meals and in the fasting state.

Short-acting, rapid-acting insulin is used to control high blood sugar after a meal, because it is usually at its peak effect.

The insulin dose cannot be administered orally because the acidic medium in the stomach completely destroys the insulin before it is absorbed into the bloodstream. Other options are delivered using a pen, an insulin pump, or through an inhaler. Choosing the best insulin dosing regimen according to individual requirements helps a diabetic to overcome On the complications that can arise at the level of the microvascular and macrovascular.


How does insulin work?

Insulin is one of the real champions in the body, as it acts as a traffic cop, it is responsible for making sure that the passage of energy (in the form of glucose) flows smoothly and reaches the cells among its many functions of insulin:


Allows glucose to enter cells

Insulin travels from the headquarters (the pancreas, where it's made) through the bloodstream to the tissues and cells, once in, it opens the gates so glucose can enter and supply the cells with energy.


Stimulates glucose storage

If the cells' energy needs are met, insulin transmits this to the muscle cells and liver and tells them to store the extra glucose in the form of glycogen, and glycogen is a form of energy that can be converted back into glucose at a later time and used when the body needs it.


Regulates blood sugar levels

Insulin plays a key role in controlling blood sugar. If it senses that there is too much glucose in the bloodstream, it can tell the liver to stop the chemical reactions that release glucose.


Stimulates fat and muscle growth

Insulin tells the body when more fat and muscle is needed and can stimulate the growth of these tissues.


*** When does a diabetic need insulin?

If the body does not produce or does not produce enough insulin, you will eventually be diagnosed with type 1 diabetes, previously called juvenile diabetes, but new estimates suggest that up to half of people with type 1 diabetes are not even diagnosed. Puberty, on the other hand if the body is not using insulin properly, you have type 2 diabetes.

While people with type 1 diabetes need to take insulin to survive, many people with type 2 are able to avoid using insulin or even avoid it completely by exercising, losing weight, adapting healthy eating habits, or using other prescribed medications. .


***Disadvantages of insulin therapy for diabetes

The biggest problem with insulin at the moment is the unaffordability of a box of rapid-acting insulin that is very expensive.

Constantly rising costs have prompted some patients to ration insulin, which can be dangerous and even fatal. The cost of test strips is also an issue, and both have led to a black market in test strips and insulin.


*** What are the serious complications that can occur due to rationing or depletion of insulin?

Diabetic ketoacidosis is an emergency that occurs if you do not have enough insulin to regulate blood sugar, and DKA causes the body to break down fats for energy in the absence of insulin. This leads to a dangerous buildup of acids known as ketones in the blood that can It causes your brain to swell and the body to go into a state of shock.


Signs of diabetic ketoacidosis include:


Thirst or severe dry mouth

frequent urination

High blood sugar levels

High levels of ketones in the urine

fatigue

Dry or flushed skin

Nausea, vomiting and stomach pain

breathing difficulties

Fruity or acetone smell on your breath  yes, just like nail polish remover 

Confusion or acting  drunk  while sober

Diabetic ketoacidosis is so common and can appear so quickly that it is the first sign of type 1 diabetes in 20% of cases, the way many type 1 diabetics are diagnosed with this condition, if you get into diabetic ketoacidosis, don't try Hide it or highlight it, treat it as an emergency and get to the hospital as soon as possible to recover.


Another complication for diabetics who use insulin is the potential for hyperglycemia, also known as insulin shock  which involves using too much insulin and causing blood sugar to drop too low.


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