What is proteinuric alveolar disease?

What is proteinuric alveolar disease?
What is proteinuric alveolar disease?

The lung is made up of millions of alveoli with very thin walls that allow the oxygen in the air we breathe to pass into the blood.

Pulmonary surfactant is an oily substance consisting of phospholipids and smaller amounts of cholesterol and proteins made in the alveoli. It is present as a thin layer on the surface of the alveolar walls and helps them to remain open, allowing air to enter and exit during breathing.

On breathing, the pulmonary surfactant is removed from the alveoli by cells called alveolar macrophages, and this helps prevent surfactant from accumulating too much.

Alveolar macrophages require a signal from a molecule called granulocyte/macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF - granulocyte/macrophage-colony stimulating factor) to stimulate the alveolar macrophage cells to function properly and maintain a normal surfactant level in the alveoli.

Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis is a syndrome of any combination of symptoms and signs rather than a single disease in which surfactant slowly builds up in the alveoli. This prevents air from entering the alveoli and oxygen from passing into the blood, resulting in shortness of breath.

The diseases that cause PAS can occur in men, women, and children of all ages, ethnic backgrounds, and geographic locations.

The severity of the disease varies from mild to severe and depends on the disease present, and therefore it is important to know what disease is causing PAS in order to determine the best treatment and the expected therapeutic response.

PAP causes mild to severe breathing problems, ranging from shortness of breath on exertion to shortness of breath at rest, and can be fatal if you don't get treatment for a serious condition.

*** Proteases of alveolar disease

The most common types of proteinuric alveolar disease include:

1. Autoimmune pulmonary alveolar proteinosis

This type is the most common and is thought to represent about 90% of adults who develop it, with these adults often aged between 30-60 years.

2. Secondary proteinaceous alveolitis

This type is caused by the presence of another type of disease, condition, or exposure to toxins of some kind.

3. Congenital proteinaceous alveolitis

There is a form of PAP that is caused by genetic defects that run in families.

*** Symptoms of proteinuric alveolar disease

The main symptoms of proteinuric alveolar disease include:

1. Common symptoms of PAP

These symptoms include:

shortness of breath.

Chest pain or tightness.


Weight loss.


Low levels of oxygen in the blood.

Abnormal nail growth.

2. Symptoms of IAP

About 30% of patients may not have any symptoms and the disease is discovered accidentally, but if symptoms occur, they may include the following:

Shortness of breath is the most common symptom. Most patients develop shortness of breath very slowly over time, usually noticing it only with activity at first and also during rest.

Coughing is the second most common symptom. This can be a dry cough or a cough that produces white phlegm. Coughing up sputum with streaks of blood with or without fever usually indicates an infection as well.

The fingertips turn blue due to the low level of oxygen in the blood.


Weight loss.

chest pain;

General feeling of ill health.

Secondary infection can occur inside or outside the lungs. Disease activity varies over time between patients, some of whom have life-threatening respiratory failure, others improve slowly, and others may undergo spontaneous improvement.

3. Symptoms of hereditary proteinuric alveolitis

The symptoms of hereditary PAP are similar to those of PAP except that it usually develops in children aged 1 to 10 years, but occasionally occurs in adolescents and older adults.

The medical history of the disease is also similar to that of hereditary PAP except that spontaneous improvement has not been reported.

4. Symptoms of congenital proteinaceous alveolitis

In CPD, the clinical presentation depends on the genetic mutation present, and can vary from respiratory failure at birth to the slow development of scarring and fibrosis of the lung in children, adolescents, or adults. Symptoms may include:

breathing rate

difficulty gaining weight

Fever, which is usually an indication of infection.

The disease may worsen over time leading to respiratory failure at different ages, depending on the specific gene involved and the mutation present.

*** Causes and risk factors for proteinuric alveolar disease

The most common causes and risk factors for PAP include:

1. Causes of proteinaceous alveolitis

The reason is a deficiency or a problem in the granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor, and this substance is necessary for the development of certain immune cells. The air sacs, which eventually leads to breathing problems.

2. Risk factors for PAP

The main risk factors include the following:

More men than women suffer from this condition.

People aged 30 - 60 years.

Exposure to substances, such as: dust and smoking, which may explain why it is so often identified in men.

*** Complications of proteinuric alveolar disease

The most notable complications include the following:

interruption of breathing

Recurrent lung infections.

Pulmonary fibrosis.

Diagnosis of proteinaceous alveolitis

The most important diagnostic methods include the following:

Perform routine, normal blood tests.

Perform a chest x-ray.

Perform a computed tomography (CT) scan.

Imaging tests usually reveal large white spots inside the lungs.

***Treatment of proteinaceous alveolar disease

In some cases, symptoms of the disease are so mild that no treatment is necessary. Sometimes the condition resolves without treatment. If you have some mild symptoms, supplemental oxygen therapy may be enough to treat the condition.

If you have severe symptoms your doctor can wash your lungs with saline, depending on the affected area they may wash only part of your lung and if your entire lung needs to be cleaned they will use a procedure called whole lung lavage, in this procedure they will fill one of your lungs with saline and drain it while keeping Ventilate your other lungs.

One wash may be enough to clear up your symptoms, but you will likely need multiple treatments. Your doctor may prescribe a drug as a new treatment that improves symptoms in some people, and as a last resort they may recommend a lung transplant.

*** Prevention of proteinaceous alveolitis

It is not possible to prevent infection with the disease, but some measures can be taken that may help in prevention, including the following:

Not smoking and avoiding passive smoking.

Try to stay away from sick people.

Wash hands after using the toilet, and before and after eating.

Eat a healthy diet and strive to reach and maintain a healthy weight.

Get a flu shot every year.

Also get a pneumonia shot.

Contact your healthcare provider if your symptoms worsen.

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