Information about the Dead Sea

Information about the Dead Sea
Information about the Dead Sea

Dead Sea

It is a lake with very high salinity located in the Jordan Valley gully, where the Dead Sea borders Jordan to the east, and occupied Palestine to the west. Its area is about 940 square kilometers, and it is located at about 389 under the sea level, and therefore it is the lowest spot on Earth, and the sea began to attract the attention of the Greeks because of its strange natural phenomena. The sea has many physical properties, such as density and its ability to make materials float easily, and in this article more information about the Dead Sea will be listed.

Dead Sea climate

Dead Sea climate The temperature of the earth and on the contrary, the temperatures in the summer are low, and this is due to the thermal capacity of the water, as there is ultraviolet radiation in the lake, but it is weak, as well as ultraviolet radiation, and since it is low, the pressure in the area is high, and it contains a slightly higher percentage of oxygen. The percentage of oxygen in other water bodies is due to the high pressure.

The geological nature of the Dead Sea

The Dead Sea has a geological nature of its own, due to the hypothesis of its formation, in addition to the salinity of its water, which has characteristics and qualities that are difficult to find elsewhere, and this is what distinguishes it from other seas. Similar to it, and the following is some information about the nature of the sea and the hypotheses of formation:

Formation hypothesis: There are two competing hypotheses about the low height of the Dead Sea. The first and oldest hypothesis: is that the sea is located in the rift zone and along the fault of the Red Sea, or in the Great Rift Valley in East Africa. The second and most recent hypothesis: is that the sea basin is the result of Transformation rift, which creates an extension of the crust with subsequent subsidence.

Salt deposits: Lake ice, consisting of rock salt, eventually reaching a thickness of 2.3 km, was deposited on the floor of the ancient basin.

Formation of the Lake: About two million years ago, the land between the Rift Valley and the Mediterranean rose to such an extent that the ocean could no longer flood the area, and thus the lake became landlocked.

The salinity of the lake: the sea water may have decreased or increased as a result of the tectonic depression in the Jordan Valley rift, and due to climate change as it became drier as the lake shrank and as a result became more salty.

The healing benefits of the Dead Sea

The Dead Sea area has become an important site for health research and treatments due to several reasons, including, the mineral content of the water and the low content of pollen and other allergens in the atmosphere, as well as the low ultraviolet rays and also the high atmospheric pressure in the area, as the area's climate and altitude It made it a popular center for providing various treatments, and here are some of these treatments:

Climatotherapy: It exploits local climatic characteristics such as: temperature, sunlight, high atmospheric pressure, and atmospheric components.

Sunlight therapy: where the biological effects of sunlight are exploited, through exposure to the sun for certain periods, as an example of this is the treatment of psoriasis.

Thalassotherapy: where sea water is used by bathing in it, for example patients with rhinosinusitis.

Mud Therapy: Dead Sea mud is rich in minerals, where mud can be treated through mud compresses, an example of this is knee arthritis, where mud compresses are placed on the knee to relieve pain temporarily.

chemical industries

 Sea water is utilized in chemical industries, where the Dead Sea began to attract the interest of chemists, and the chemists concluded that the sea was a natural deposit of potash and bromine. Production For the first time in 1931, potash was produced by solar evaporation of salt water, and in 1934 a second factory was built on the southwestern side of the sea, and in 1948 the two factories were destroyed by Jordan during the Arab-Israeli war.

Dead Sea Works was established in 1952 as a state-owned enterprise. In 1995 the company was privatized and is now owned by the Israel Chemicals Company. In 2001, Israel produced 1.77 million tons of potash, 206,000 tons of bromine, 4,490 tons of caustic soda, 25 thousand tons of magnesium and sodium chloride. On the other hand, the Jordanian side produces the Arab Potash Company, which was formed in 1956, as it produces 2 million tons of potash annually, in addition to sodium chloride and bromine, where the Dead Sea sales achieve about 1.2 billion dollars annually. The companies use evaporation basins on a large scale, as these basins cover the entire southern end, and these basins are used to produce magnesium chloride and potassium chloride. The basins are separated by a major dam. This dam extends from north to south along the international border between Jordan and occupied Palestine. Due to the uniqueness of the Dead Sea in treatments, many companies have shown an interest in the manufacture and production of Dead Sea salts as a skin care, body and skin care product.

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