cancer : What are the symptoms of cancer? How does a person get cancer? What are the complications of cancer?

cancer : What are the symptoms of cancer? How does a person get cancer? What are the complications of cancer?


Cancer is a medical term that includes a wide range of diseases characterized by the abnormal growth of cells that divide uncontrollably and have the ability to penetrate tissues and destroy healthy tissues in the body, and is able to spread throughout the body.

Cancer is one of the leading causes of death in the Western world, but the odds of a cure for cancer are constantly improving in most types, due to advances in early cancer detection methods and cancer treatment options.

Cancer stages are denoted by degrees, usually with Roman numerals I through IV, with a larger number indicating that the cancer is more advanced. In some cases, the stage of cancer is indicated using letters or verbal descriptions.


***Symptoms of cancer

Symptoms of cancer vary from one case to another depending on the organ affected by cancer. Some general symptoms of cancer are attributed to him, but they are not specific to cancer alone, and include:


exhaustion.

High temperature.

A lump or swelling that can be felt under the skin.

pain.

Changes in body weight, including an unintended increase or decrease in body weight.

Changes on the surface of the skin such as: the appearance of a yellow color, the appearance of dark areas or red spots in the skin, the appearance of wounds that do not heal, or changes in moles that were present on the skin.

Changes in bowel or bladder functioning patterns.

persistent cough

Hoarseness.

Difficulty swallowing.

Indigestion or feeling restless after eating.


*** Causes and risk factors of cancer

Cancer is generated by a mutation in a chain of deoxyribonucleic acid - DNA found in cells. This chain in the human body contains a set of instructions prepared for the cells of the body that determine how to grow, develop and divide.

Healthy cells sometimes tend to make changes to their DNA, but they are still able to correct the bulk of these changes, but if you can't make these corrections, the distorted cells often die.

However, some of these deviations are not correctable, which leads to the growth of these cells and their transformation into cancerous cells, and these deviations can also prolong the life of some cells more than their average life, this phenomenon causes the accumulation of cancer cells.


How does a person get cancer?

In some types of cancer, the accumulation of these cells generates a cancerous tumor, but not all types of cancer produce cancerous tumors, for example, leukemia is a type of cancer that affects blood cells, bone marrow, lymphatic system, and spleen, but this type of cancer does not produce a tumor.

The initial genetic aberration is only the beginning of the cancer development process, and researchers believe that the development of cancer requires a number of changes within the cell, including the following:


1. A precipitating factor that leads to a genetic change

Sometimes a person may be born with a specific genetic deviation, while the genetic deviation may occur in others as a result of active forces within the body such as: hormones, viruses, and chronic infections.

Genetic deviation can also occur as a result of active forces outside the body, such as: ultraviolet (UV) rays from sunlight, or carcinogenic factors from cancer-causing chemicals (Carcinogen) present in the living environment.


2. Rapid cell growth factor

Cofactors exploit genetic aberrations and changes caused by initiating factors, as cofactors make cells divide more rapidly and this can lead to cells accumulating as a carcinoma.

And cofactors can be passed on through heredity, and they can form inside the body or they can reach from the outside and enter the body.


3. An encouraging factor that makes the cancer more aggressive and helps it spread

Without encouraging factors, a cancerous tumor can remain benign and localized, but encouraging factors make the cancer more aggressive, increase the likelihood of cancer entering and destroying nearby tissues, and increasing the possibility of the cancer spreading to other organs throughout the body.

As in the case of initiating and facilitating factors, so too the inducing factors can also be transmitted through heredity, or formed as a result of the effects of environmental factors.

The genetic structure, the lifestyle and the environment in which we live can all form the basis for the formation of cancer or to complete its formation if it has started. Of people exposed to the same agent that can cause cancer.


***Risk Factors

Factors known to increase the risk of developing cancer include:


Age: Cancer can take several decades to develop, which is why most people are diagnosed with cancer after the age of 55.

Habits: Certain lifestyles are known to increase the risk of developing cancer.

Smoking: People who smoke are more likely to develop lung cancer than others.

Drinking alcohol: People who drink alcohol are more likely to develop cancer.

Excessive exposure to the sun: Multiple sunburns accompanied by the appearance of a fluid-filled bubble that appears in the upper layers of the skin increases the risk of developing cancer.

Family history: Only about 10% of all cancer cases occur on a genetic basis. If cancer runs in the family, genetic abnormalities are very likely to be passed down through heredity.

General health status: Certain chronic diseases, such as ulcerative colitis, can greatly increase the risk of developing certain types of cancer.

Living environment: The environment in which we live may contain harmful chemicals that can increase the risk of developing cancer.

Chemicals: such as those found at home or in the workplace such as: asbestos or benzene, as they can be factors that increase the risk of developing cancer.


*** Complications of cancer

Cancer and cancer treatment may lead to the emergence of several complications, including the following:


Side effects of cancer treatment.

Unusual responses from the immune system to cancer.

Cancer outbreak.

The recurrence of cancer after treatment.


***Diagnosis of cancer

Diagnosing cancer in its early stages provides the best chances of recovery from it, so if the patient feels suspicious symptoms, he should consult with his doctor about which of the tests is most appropriate for him to detect early cancer, as early detection of cancer may save the lives of some people with some types cancer.

The American Cancer Society recommends early detection of cancer for people with moderate risk factors for the following types of cancer:


Breast cancer: Breast cancer is detected for women 40 years of age and older.

Cervical cancer: Cervical cancer is detected for women age 21 and older or three years after the first sexual intercourse.

Colon cancer: Colon cancer is screened for men and women 50 years of age and older.

Prostate gland cancer: Prostate gland cancer is detected for men 50 and over.


*** Tests needed to diagnose cancer

To diagnose cancer, your doctor may choose one or more early cancer screening tests, including:


Physical examination.

Laboratory tests.

Imaging examinations.

biopsy;

After the diagnosis of cancer, the doctor tries to determine the extent of the cancer or the stage of the cancer, and then the doctor decides about treatment methods or the prospects for recovery according to the classification and degree of cancer in the specific patient.

Cancer treatment

Cancer treatment consists of a variety of treatments, and cancer treatment options depend on several factors, such as: the type and stage of the cancer, the general health status, as well as the patient's own preferences.

You can consult with your oncologist about the benefits and risks of each of the cancer treatment options to determine the best and most effective cancer treatment for each case.


***The goals of cancer treatment

The application of cancer treatment is achieved by achieving multiple and different goals, including the following:


Treatment aimed at killing or removing cancer cells.

Treatment aimed at destroying the remaining cancer cells.

A treatment that aims to treat the side effects resulting from cancer and its treatment.


***Treatments available for cancer

Doctors have a variety of tools at their disposal today that are designed to treat cancer. These treatments include:


surgery.

Chemotherapy.

Radiation therapy.

Spinal cord and stem cell transplantation.

Biological therapy.

hormonal therapy;

drug therapy.

clinical trials.


***Prevention of cancer

There's no sure way to avoid getting cancer, but doctors have identified some ways that can help reduce cancer risk factors, including:


Quit Smoking.

Avoid excessive exposure to the sun.

Maintain a balanced and healthy diet.

Doing physical activity most days of the week.

Maintain a normal and healthy weight.

Ensure that early detection examinations are carried out regularly.

Consult your doctor about available vaccines.


***Alternative therapies

It has not been conclusively proven that alternative treatments lead to a cure for cancer, but the possibilities of alternative medicine may help counter the effects and relieve cancer symptoms and side effects resulting from its treatments, such as fatigue, nausea and pain.

You should consult your doctor about whether these treatments may help with treatment or if they interfere with the main treatments. These treatments include the following:


Acupuncture.

Hypnosis (Hypnosis).

massage.

Meditation.

Various relaxation techniques.


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