Learn all about colitis in 2022

Learn all about colitis in 2022

Colitis, also known as the large intestine. If you have colitis, you will feel discomfort and pain in your abdomen that may be mild and frequent over a long period of time, or severe and appear suddenly.

There are different types of colitis, and treatment varies depending on the type of colitis you have.

*** Types of colitis and its causes

Colitis types are classified according to their causes.

           **Ulcerative colitis

Ulcerative colitis (UC) is one of two conditions classified as inflammatory bowel disease. The other type is Crohn's disease.

UC is a lifelong disease that results in inflammation and bleeding ulcers within the inner lining of the large intestine. It generally begins in the rectum and spreads to the colon.

UC is the most common type of colitis diagnosed. It occurs when the immune system overreacts to bacteria and other substances in the digestive system, but experts don't know why this happens. Common types include:

Proctosigmoiditis, which affects the rectum and lower part of the colon

Left-sided colitis, which affects the left side of the colon beginning with the rectum

Pancolitis, which affects the entire large intestine.

***Pseudomembranous colitis

Pseudomembranous colitis (PC) is caused by an overgrowth of the bacterium Clostridium difficile. This type of bacteria lives normally in the intestines, but it does not cause problems because it is balanced by the presence of "good" bacteria.

Some medications, especially antibiotics, may destroy healthy bacteria. This allows Clostridium difficile to take hold, releasing toxins that cause inflammation.

          **Ischemic colitis

Ischemic colitis (IC) occurs when blood flow to the colon is suddenly cut off or restricted. Blood clots can be the cause of a sudden blockage. Atherosclerosis, or the buildup of fatty deposits in the blood vessels that feed the colon, is usually the cause of recurring interstitial cystitis.

This type of colitis is often the result of an underlying medical condition. Include the following:

Vasculitis, an inflammatory disease of the blood vessels


Colon Cancer


blood loss

Heart failure



Although interstitial cystitis is rare, it may occur as a side effect of taking certain medications.

        ** Microscopic colitis

Microscopic colitis is a medical condition that a doctor can identify only by looking at a sample of colon tissue under a microscope. The doctor will look for signs of inflammation, such as lymphocytes, which are a type of white blood cell.

Doctors sometimes classify microscopic colitis into two categories: lymphocytic colitis and collagenous colitis. Lymphocytic colitis occurs when a doctor identifies an excessive number of lymphocytes. However, the tissues of the colon and lining are not abnormally thick.

Collagenous colitis occurs when the lining of the colon becomes thicker than normal due to a buildup of collagen under the outer layer of tissue. There are different theories about each type of microscopic colitis, but some doctors assume that both types of colitis are different forms of the same condition.

Doctors don't know exactly what causes microscopic colitis. However, they know that some people are more likely to develop this condition. delusion:

current smokers


A history of an autoimmune disorder

Over 50

The most common symptoms of microscopic colitis are chronic watery diarrhea, flatulence, and abdominal pain.

***Allergic colitis in infants

Allergic colitis is a condition that can occur in infants, usually within the first two months after birth. The condition can cause symptoms in infants that include reflux, excessive spitting up, irritability, and possible blood spots in the baby's stool.

Doctors don't know exactly what causes allergic colitis. According to a 2013 study published in the World Journal of Gastroenterology, one of the most popular theories is that infants have an allergic or hypersensitive reaction to certain ingredients in breast milk.

Doctors often recommend a diet for the mother in which she slowly stops eating certain foods known to contribute to allergic colitis. Examples include cow's milk, eggs, and wheat. If the symptoms stop in the child, it is likely that these foods are the culprit.

             **Additional reasons

Other causes of colitis include infection from parasites and viruses, and food poisoning from bacteria. The condition can also be aggravated if the large intestine is treated with radiation.

***Who is at risk of developing colitis

You are at greater risk of ulcerative colitis if you:

15-30 years old (most common) or 60-80 years old

Of Jewish or Caucasian descent

You have a family member with colitis

You are more at risk of pseudomembranous colitis if you:

Those who take antibiotics for the long term

They are admitted to the hospital

They are receiving chemotherapy

They are taking immunosuppressive drugs

the elderly

You are at greater risk of developing ischemic colitis if you:

over the age of fifty

You have or are at risk of developing heart disease

You have heart failure

You have low blood pressure

I underwent abdominal surgery

*** Symptoms of colitis

Depending on your condition, you may experience one or more of the following symptoms:

Abdominal pain or cramps

bloating in your stomach

Weight loss

Diarrhea with or without blood

blood in stool

chills or fever


*** When do you see a doctor?

While everyone may experience diarrhea from time to time, consult a doctor if you have diarrhea that does not appear to be related to an infection, fever, or any known contaminated foods. Other symptoms that indicate it is time to see a doctor include:

Joint pain

A rash with no known cause

A small amount of blood in the stool, such as stool with slight red lines

Stomach pain that keeps coming back

Unexplained weight loss

If you feel that something does not fit in your stomach, it is best to speak to your doctor. Listening to your body is important to staying healthy.

          ** Diagnosis of colitis

Your doctor may ask about the frequency of your symptoms and when they first appeared. He or she will perform a thorough physical exam and use diagnostic tests such as:

Colonoscopy, which involves inserting a camera onto a flexible tube through the anus to view the rectum and colon

Sigmoidoscopy, which is similar to a colonoscopy but only shows the rectum and lower colon

stool samples

Abdominal imaging such as MRI or CT scan

Ultrasound, which is useful depending on the area being examined

A barium enema, an X-ray of the colon after it's been injected with barium, which helps make the images clearer.

           ** Colitis treatment

Treatments vary depending on several factors:

Colitis type


General physical condition

* Bowel comfort

Limiting what you take by mouth can be helpful, especially if you have ischemic colitis. It may be necessary to take fluids and other nutrition intravenously during this time.


Your doctor may prescribe anti-inflammatory medications to treat swelling and pain, and antibiotics to treat infection. Your doctor may also treat you with pain medications or anti-seizure medications.


Surgery to remove part of the colon, the rectum, or both may be necessary if other treatments haven't worked.

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